Roscovitine was injected directly (30?min) before shot of A. that single injection of A oligomers induces long-lasting activation of microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampus. We observed also profound, early inflammatory response in the mice hippocampus, leading to the significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (e.g. TNF-, IL-1, IL-6). Moreover, A oligomers elevated the formation of truncated protein p25 in mouse hippocampus and induced overactivation of Cdk5 in neuronal cells. Importantly, administration of roscovitine reduced the inflammatory processes evoked by A in the hippocampus, leading to the significant decrease of cytokines level. Conclusions These studies clearly show the involvement of Cdk5 in modulation of brain inflammatory response induced by A and may Diosgenin glucoside indicate this kinase as a novel target for pharmacological intervention in AD. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article Diosgenin glucoside (10.1186/s12974-017-1027-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. or direction or by varying the scanning angle and scan rate. Oligomeric samples were prepared by applying a drop of 10?l A1C42 solution on freshly cleaved mica (Ted Pella Inc., USA). After incubation for 10?min, the sample was rinsed with deionised water (Millipore Inc., USA) and dried under a gentle stream of argon. Animals All the experiments were carried out on male C57BL/6 mice, 3?months old, supplied from the Animal House of Mossakowski Medical Research Centre PAS (Warsaw, Poland) which runs breeding of small rodents in SPF standard. The animals were maintained under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity with 12-h light/dark cycle. All of the experiments conducted on the animals were approved by the IV Local Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation in Warsaw and were carried out in accordance with the EC Council Directive of November 24, 1986 (86/609/EEC), following the ARRIVE guidelines and guidelines published in the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the principles presented in the Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research by the Society for Neuroscience. All efforts were made to minimise animal suffering and to reduce the number of animals used. Injections were performed between 9?a.m. and 1?p.m. All manipulations were performed gently and quickly to avoid stress-induced alterations. A 1C42 was Rabbit Polyclonal to GRP94 administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) at the dose of 0.5?nmol per mice as previously described by Cakala and co-workers . In brief, the mice were anesthetised by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of ketamine/xylazine cocktail (100/10?mg/kg b.w.) and placed in a stereotaxic frame (Stoeling Co., USA). A 1-mm hole was drilled 1?mm posterior to the bregma and 1.3?mm lateral. A microsyringe with a 26-gauge stainless steel needle (Hamilton) was inserted to a 2-mm depth, and 5?l of A solution was slowly injected for 5?min. The control animals received injection of the solvent. Separate groups of mice received additional ip injection of potent and selective Cdk5 inhibitor, roscovitine (seliciclib, CYC202). Roscovitine was dissolved in DMSO, diluted to the desired concentration with saline and administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 50?mg/kg b.w. as described previously by Czapski and co-workers . The animals from the respective experimental groups received an appropriate volume of the solvent. Roscovitine was injected directly (30?min) before injection of A. The Diosgenin glucoside animals were then returned to their home cage. Then, after the appropriate time (3?h or 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 35?days) after injection, the mice were decapitated, the brains were dissected and the Diosgenin glucoside hippocampi were isolated on ice-cold Petri dish..